In the 2014-2015 school year, Maryland administered new state assessments in English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematics to students in grades 3-8 and high school. These two assessments are part of the Maryland Comprehensive Assessment Program (MCAP) which, in addition to MCAP ELA and MCAP Math, includes MCAP Science in grades 5, 8, and high school; the Multi-State Alternate Assessment (for students with disabilities); MCAP Government (for high school students); the English language proficiency assessment (for students learning English); and the Kindergarten Readiness Assessment.

In addition to MCAP assessments, students take other assessments such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and college readiness tests like Advanced Placement and SAT.